Feeling Fatigued? Thirsty? Frequently Urinate?
Diabetes Mellitus is the most feared hormonal and metabolic disease that can cause a lot of problems to our health.
Diabetes mellitus is another name for diabetes. It is a disorder in which the body's sugar or glucose levels are too high, causing 'hyperglycemia,' which is harmful to the body. Diabetes mellitus, on the other hand, has nothing to do with diabetes insipidus, despite the fact that their names are nearly identical. Water retention is a symptom of diabetes insipidus, which is caused by kidney issues.
Obesity is one of the main causes of this disease. An unhealthy lifestyle, such as an unbalanced diet and lack of exercise, contributes to its occurrence. Obesity is a major cause of diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and an increased risk of heart disease.
As an introduction to diabetes, we must understand that sugar is one of the main components for the proper functioning of the body. It depends on how our body's sugar control system works to make sure there is not too much sugar in our blood or too little.
Sugar or glucose could be a vital element within the body. Every cell and tissue within the body needs sugar as an important nutrient. Daily activities like walking, thinking, exercising, eating, and even sleeping require sugar as a source of energy. once we eat, the body will digest carbohydrates before they become the simplest form of sugars and enter the bloodstream to be carried throughout the body. Sugar is carried by the blood to each corner of the body together with oxygen.
If the cell doesn't get enough sugar, the cell can die. However, the sugar that's within the bloodstream can only be transferred into the cells that are needed if there's the hormone insulin. Insulin will be likened to a key or a bridge to transfer sugar between the blood and body tissue cells. Insulin is the foremost important element within the body's buffer system in order to control the sugar level. It'll be produced more by the pancreas if the blood glucose level detected within the body is more than it should be and the other way around if the sugar level is low.
Dysfunction or absence of the hormone insulin will cause blood sugar levels to be high in the long run. This is not good for the body as it can damage blood vessels and nerves. Diabetes mellitus occurs due to the absence or lack of insulin in the body or the body becomes obsessed with insulin. Insulin resistance is called 'insulin resistance. Both of these conditions can happen to a person in the same period of time.
What is the normal level of sugar in the blood?
Blood sugar levels depend on the amount of carbohydrates that enter the body. In general, in clinics or hospitals, there is a normal sugar level according to age and it can be divided into two, namely random sugar rate (random glucose) or fasting sugar rate (fasting glucose). Sugar levels during fasting will be calculated if the patient does not take any food and drink for 8 hours or more, usually taken after waking up from sleep in the morning. Glucometers can be used to check blood sugar levels quickly and can be done at a clinic or at home.
The following are sugar levels for the diagnosis of diabetes :
Random Glucose - more than> 7.0 mmol/L
Fasting Glucose - more than> 11.0 mmol/L
Yet for a more accurate diagnosis, there is a type of test known as the HbA1c blood test. It can be done to look at blood sugar levels in the last 3 months. It is highly recommended that you contact a doctor if you have any questions regarding these blood tests.
Signs that a person is having diabetes :
What are the types of Diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes can be divided into 2 categories, depending on the cause or pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. Among them are :
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus :
Previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes). The disease accounts for only 7% of the total incidence of all types of diabetes. The disease is caused by an autoimmune action in which the body cannot produce enough insulin or no insulin at all due to damaged pancreatic cells.
The disease is usually detected in children who will show symptoms such as excessive thirst, and frequent urination, and worse they may also experience a dangerous situation known as diabetic ketoacidosis.
As a result of the absence of insulin, the body will break down proteins and fats to get sugar or `. The product that results from this process is known as ketones, which will cause the body to become very acidic. It can be fatal if not treated right away.
Among the symptoms of Diabetic Ketoacidosis are :
People with type 1 diabetes will need insulin from outside the body for the rest of their lives. They are also more at risk for getting other autoimmune diseases.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus :
Previously referred to as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes, and accounts for about 90% of people with diabetes, usually over the age of 40. This disease is a type of diabetes that is experienced by the majority of the community which is 90-95% of the total cases of diabetes. Usually, patients belong to the elderly and most patients are obese patients.
Among the contributing factors to this disease are obesity or obesity caused by unhealthy lifestyles and an unbalanced diet.
What is the definition of type 2 diabetes?
The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus is usually due to unhealthy lifestyle choices. Foods high in calories and sugar, an unbalanced diet, inactive exercise, smoking, and in the end all these things contribute to obesity. This is the most important risk factor for a person to get diabetes.
Advancing age and hereditary factors have also been identified as among one the irreversible risks. Type 2 diabetes can occur when the body has become immune to the action of insulin because the body is accustomed to being exposed to high sugar levels. It can also occur if the pancreatic cells have been damaged and are no longer able to produce enough insulin to meet the body's needs or both occur simultaneously.
As a result of type 2 diabetes, patients can experience diabetic foot pain, kidney damage, blindness, damage to the nervous system, and also increase the risk of heart disease.
To treat this condition, it is necessary to start by changing the lifestyle to be healthier for example by consuming foods low in sugar and carbohydrates as well as increasing the frequency of exercise. If the sugar content is still not well controlled by these methods, a sugar-lowering drug or hypoglycaemic agent can be used before using insulin. In the early stages, diabetes can be cured if the patient manages to change their lifestyle to a better one.
Diabetic Health screening can help to prevent from getting Diabetes Mellitus before it's too late. Make a booking and let's talk to our Community Doctor regarding your health issue.
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